- Sources of Goods and Services
The following statutory exceptions from bidding are available. Persons making procurement decisions should always evaluate the cost effectiveness of utilizing the following sources. These sources may or may not be the best choice for the Kingston Library District.
- Preferred Sources
NYS enacted legislation to advance “special social and economic goals” giving certain vendors preferred source status. These include the Department of Correction Services’ Correctional Industries Program (CORCRAFT) and certain not-for-profit agencies. NYS Office of General Services (OGS) publishes a “List of Preferred Source Offerings” on its website (www.ogs.state.ny.us). 
- State Contract
NYS OGS awards contracts for which ‘piggybacking’ may be authorized for local governments and others. Consult the contracts on the OGS website identified above.
- County Contracts
Ulster County may allow ‘piggybacking’ for local governments and others. The Purchasing Agent should be contacted regarding the availability of such opportunities.
- Nature of Goods or Services
All determinations that the nature of goods or services triggers one of the following exceptions from bidding shall be documented.
There are three criteria which need to be met for this exception from bidding to apply: 
- Sole Source
There may be limited situations where, in the public interest, the Kingston Library District requires particular goods or services for which there is not substantial equivalent and which are, in fact, available from only one source. In making this determination, the library must document the unique benefits of the item compared with other items available in the marketplace, that no other item provides similar benefits, and that the cost is reasonable.
- Professional Services
These services require specialized or technical skills, expertise or knowledge, the exercise of professional judgment, or a high degree or creativity.  The situations must be examined on a case-by-case basis since court cases provide much of the guidance in this area. Engineers, architects, land surveyors, attorneys and others have been held to be professional services by the courts.  Requests for Proposals (RFP) should be considered for procurement of professional services as a method to foster competition in these situations where award of contracts is not required to be based on price alone.
- True Lease
“Competitive bidding requirements may not be avoided by simply casting an agreement which is truly a purchase or contract for public work as a lease or rental.” 
These contracts do not require competitive bidding although periodically RFP’s should be considered as a method to foster competition for insurances such as health, fire. Liability and workers’ compensation.
- Surplus/Second-Hand Materials, Supplies, Equipment from Certain Other Governments
Only surplus/second-hand purchases from other governmental units are exempted from the bidding requirement. See GML, section 103(6).
Except for procurements made pursuant to GML, section 103(3) (through county contracts) or section 104 (through State contract), State Finance Law, section 162, Correction Law, Sections 184 and 186 (from “preferred sources,” including articles manufactured in correctional institutions), or the items excepted herein (see above), alternative proposals or quotations for goods and services shall be secured by use of either written requests for proposals, written quotations, verbal quotations or any other method or procurement that furthers the purposes of the GML, section 104-b in accordance with the guidelines below for methods of competitions.